2.jpg

Peer-Mediated Interventions

Peer-mediated interventions are powerful and practical strategies for supporting the inclusion, learning, and relationships of students with severe disabilities. The sections below highlight my research and writing focused on the design, delivery, and evaluation of peer support arrangements, peer networks, peer partner programs, and other peer-mediated interventions.

research studies

  • Carter, E. W., Dykstra, J. S., & Hall, L. J. (in press). Exploring feasibility and fit: Peer-mediated interventions for high school students with autism spectrum disorder. School Psychology Review.  

  • Carter, E. W., Gustafson, J. R., Mackay, M. M., Martin, K., Parlsey, M., Graves, J., Day, T., McCabe, L., Lazarz, H., McMillan, E., Beeson, T., Schiro-Geist, C., Williams, M., & Cayton, J. (in press). Motivations and expectations of peer mentors within inclusive higher education programs for students with intellectual disability. Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals

  • Biggs, E. E., Carter, E. W., Mazur, E., Barnes, K., & Bumble, J. L. (2018). Embedding peer-implemented aided AAC modeling within a peer network intervention for students with complex communication needs. Exceptional Children, 85, 66-85.

  • Huber, H. B., Carter, E. W., Lopano, S. E., & Stankiewicz, K. C. (2018). Using structural analysis to inform peer support arrangements for high school students with severe disabilities. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 123, 119-139. doi: 10.1352/1944-7558-123.2.119  

  • Asmus, J., Carter, E. W., Moss, C. K., Biggs, E. E., Bolt, D., Born, T. L., Bottema-Beutel, K., Brock, M. E., Cattey, G., Cooney, M., Fesperman, E., Hochman, J. T., Huber, H. B., Lequia, J., Lyons, G. L., Vincent, L. B., & Wier, K. (2017). Efficacy and social validity of peer network interventions for high school students with severe disabilities. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 122, 118-137. doi: 10.1352/1944-7558-122.2.118  

  • Biggs, E. E., Carter, E. W., & Gustafson, J. R. (2017). Efficacy of collaborative planning and peer support arrangements to increase peer interaction and AAC use in inclusive classrooms. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 122, 25-48. doi: 10.1352/1944-7558-122.1.25

  • Carter, E. W., Gustafson, J. R., Sreckovic, M. A., Steinbrenner, J. R. D., Pierce, N. P., Bord, A., Stabel, A., Rogers, S., Czerw, A., & Mullins, T. (2017). Efficacy of peer support interventions in general education classrooms for high school students with autism spectrum disorder. Remedial and Special Education, 38, 207-221. doi: 10.1177/0741932516672067

  • Leigers, K., Kleinert, H., & Carter, E. W. (2017). I never truly thought about them having friends”: Equipping schools to foster peer relationships. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 36, 73-83. doi: doi.org/10.1177/8756870517707711

  • Asmus, J. A., Carter, E. W., Moss, C. K., Born, T. L., Vincent, L. B., Lloyd, B. P., & Chung, Y. (2016). Social outcomes and acceptability of two peer-mediated interventions for high school students with severe disabilities: A pilot study. Inclusion, 4, 194-214. doi: 10.1352/2326-6988-4.4.195

  • Bottema-Beutel, K., Mullins, T., Harvey, M., Gustafson, J. R., & Carter, E. W. (2016). Avoiding the “brick wall of awkward”: Perspectives of youth with autism spectrum disorder on socialization-focused intervention practices. Autism, 20, 196-206. doi: 10.1177/1362361315574888

  • Brock, M. E., Biggs, E. E., Carter, E. W., Cattey, G., & Raley, K. (2016). Implementation and generalization of peer support arrangements for students with significant disabilities in inclusive classrooms. The Journal of Special Education, 49, 221-232. doi: 10.1177/0022466915594368

  • Brock, M. E., & Carter, E. W. (2016). Efficacy of teachers training paraprofessionals to implement peer support arrangements. Exceptional Children, 82, 354-371. doi: 10.1177/0014402915585564

  • Carter, E. W., Asmus, J., Moss, C. K., Amirault, K. A., Biggs, E. E., Bolt, D., Born, T. L., Brock, M. E., Cattey, G., Chen, R., Cooney, M., Hochman, J. T., Huber, H. B., Lequia, J., Lyons, G., Riesch, L., Shalev, R., Vincent, L. B., & Wier, K. (2016). Randomized evaluation of peer supports arrangements to support the inclusion of high school students with severe disabilities. Exceptional Children, 82, 209-233. doi: 10.1177/0014402915598780

  • Griffin, M. M., Mello, M. P., Glover, C. A., Carter, E. W., & Hodapp, R. (2016). Supporting students with intellectual disability in postsecondary education: The motivations and experiences of peer mentors. Inclusion, 4, 75-88. doi: 10.1352/2326-6988-4.2.75

  • Hochman, J. M., Carter, E. W., Bottema-Beutel, K., Harvey, M. N., & Gustafson, J. R. (2015). Efficacy of peer networks to increase social connections among high school students with and without autism. Exceptional Children, 82, 96-116. doi: 10.1177/0014402915585482

  • Gardner, K., Carter, E. W., Gustafson, J. R., Hochman, J. M., Harvey, M. N., Mullins, T. S., & Fan, H. (2014). Effects of peer networks on the social interactions of high school students with autism spectrum disorders. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 39, 100-118. doi: 10.1177/1540796914544550

  • Chung, Y., & Carter, E. W. (2013). Promoting peer interactions in inclusive classrooms for students with speech-generating devices. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 32, 94-109. doi: 10.2511/027494813807714492

  • Carter, E. W., Moss, C. K., Hoffman, A., Chung, Y., & Sisco, L. G. (2011). Efficacy and social validity of peer support arrangements for adolescents with disabilities. Exceptional Children, 78, 107-125. doi: 10.1177/001440291107800107

  • Carter, E. W., & Pesko, M. J. (2008). Social validity of peer interaction intervention strategies in high school classrooms: Effectiveness, feasibility, and actual use. Exceptionality, 16, 156-173. doi: 10.1080/09362830802198427

  • Carter, E. W., Sisco, L. G., Melekoglu, M., & Kurkowski, C. (2007). Peer supports as an alternative to individually assigned paraprofessionals in inclusive high school classrooms. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 32, 213-227. doi: 10.2511/rpsd.32.4.213

  • Carter, E. W., Cushing, L. S., Clark, N. M., & Kennedy, C. H. (2005). Effects of peer support interventions on students’ access to the general curriculum and social interactions. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 30, 15-25. doi: 10.2511/rpsd.30.1.15

  • Copeland, S. R., Hughes, C., Carter, E. W., Guth, C., Presley, J., Williams, C. R., & Fowler, S. E. (2004). Increasing access to general education: Perspectives of participants in a high school peer support program. Remedial and Special Education, 26, 342-352. doi: 10.1177/07419325040250060201

  • Hughes, C., Carter, E. W., Hughes, T., Bradford, E., & Copeland, S. R. (2002). Effects of instructional versus non-instructional roles on the social interaction of high school students. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 37, 146-162.

  • Carter, E. W., Hughes, C., Copeland, S. R., & Breen, C. (2001). Differences between high school students who do and do not volunteer to participate in peer interaction programs. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 26, 229-239. doi: 10.2511/rpsd.26.4.229

  • Copeland, S. R., McCall, J., Williams, C. R., Guth, C., Carter, E. W., Presley, J. A., Fowler, S. E., & Hughes, C. (2002). “The Peer Buddy Program is a win-win situation”: Teachers’ perspectives of a high school peer support program. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 35(1), 16-21. doi: 10.1177/004005990203500103


reviews and other articles

  • Carter, E. W. (2019). Inclusion, friendships, and the power of peers. Impact, 31(2), 19-20. Available at https://ici.umn.edu/products/impact/312/Peer-Power/#Peer-Power.

  • Biggs, E. E., Carter, E. W., & Gilson, C. B. (2018). Systematic review of interventions involving aided AAC modeling and their effectiveness for children with complex communication needs. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 123, 443-473.

  • Carter, E. W. (2018). Supporting the social lives of secondary students with severe disabilities: Critical elements for effective intervention. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 26, 52-61. doi: 10.1177/1063426617739253

  • Carter, E. W. (2017). The promise and practice of peer support arrangements for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities. International Review of Research in Developmental Disabilities, 52, 141-174. doi: 10.1016/bs.irrdd.2017.04.001

  • Christopher-Allen, A., Hunter, W., Brown, S., Carter, E. W., & Schiro-Geist, C. (2017). Utilizing peer-mediated instruction within post-secondary classrooms. Journal of Forensic Vocational Analysis, 17, 27-36

  • Huber, H. B., & Carter, E. W. (2016). Data-driven individualization in peer-mediated interventions for students with ASD: A literature review. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 3, 239-253. doi: 10.1007/s40489-016-0079-8

  • Schaefer, J. M., Canella-Malone, H. I., & Carter, E. W. (2016). The place of peers in peer-mediated interventions for students with intellectual disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 37, 345-356. doi: 10.1177/0741932516629220

  • Carter, E. W., Common, E. A., Sreckovic, M. A., Huber, H. B., Bottema-Beutel, K., Gustafson, J. R., Dykstra, J., & Hume, K. (2014). Promoting social competence and peer relationships for adolescents with ASD. Remedial and Special Education, 35, 27-37. doi: 10.1177/0741932513514618

  • Chung, Y., Carter, E. W., & Sisco, L. G. (2012). A systematic review of interventions to increase peer interactions for students with complex communication challenges. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 37, 271-287. doi: 10.2511/027494813805327304

  • Carter, E. W., Sisco, L. G., & Chung, Y. (2012). Peer-mediated support strategies. In P. A. Prelock & R. McCauley (Eds.), Treatment of autism spectrum disorders: Evidence-based intervention strategies for communication and social interactions (pp. 221-254). Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing.

  • Carter, E. W., Sisco, L. G., Chung, Y., & Stanton-Chapman, T. (2010). Peer interactions of students with intellectual disabilities and/or autism: A map of the intervention literature. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 35, 63-79. doi: 10.2511/rpsd.35.3-4.63

  • Carter, E. W., & Kennedy, C. H. (2006). Promoting access to the general curriculum using peer support strategies. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 31, 284-292. doi: 10.1177/154079690603100402


chapters & practice guides

  • Brock, M. E., Carter, E. W., & Biggs, E. E. (in press). Promoting social connections and peer relationships. In F. Brown, J. McDonnell, & M. E. Snell (Eds.), Instruction of students with severe disabilities (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill. 

  • Huber, H. B., & Carter, E. W. (in press). Fostering peer relationships and shared learning for students with autism spectrum disorders. In R. Jordan, J. Roberts, & K. Hume (Eds.), Autism and education: An international handbook. London, UK: Sage. 

  • Carter, E. W., & Biggs, E. E. (2019). Evidence-based practices for adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder and complex communication needs. In J. B. Ganz & R. L. Simpson (Eds.), Interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder and complex communication needs (pp. 225-247). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing.

  • Biggs, E. E., & Carter, E. W. (2017). Supporting the social lives of students with intellectual disability. In M. L. Wehmeyer and K. A. Shogren (Eds.), Handbook of research-based practices for educating students with intellectual disability (pp. 235-254). Oxford, UK: Routledge.

  • Carter, E. W., Biggs, E. E., & Blustein, C. L. (2016). Relationships matter: Addressing stigma among students with intellectual disability and their peers. In K. Scior and S. Werner (Eds.), Intellectual disability and stigma: Stepping out from the margins (pp. 149-164). London, UK: Palgrave McMillan.

  • Carter, E. W., & Brock, M. E. (2016). Promoting social competence and peer relationships. In F. Brown, J. McDonnell, & M. E. Snell (Eds.), Instruction of students with severe disabilities (8th ed.; pp. 371-403). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill. 

  • Carter, E. W., Huber, H. H., & Biggs, E. E. (2015). The importance of peers as communication partners. In J. E. Downing, A. Hanreddy, & K. Peckham-Hardin (Eds.), Teaching communication skills to students with severe disabilities (3rd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing. 

  • Carter, E. W., Moss, C. K., Asmus, J., Fesperman, E., Cooney, M., Brock, M. E., Lyons, G., Huber, H. B., & Vincent, L. B. (2015). Promoting inclusion, social relationships, and learning through peer support arrangements. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 48(1), 9-18. doi: 10.1177/0040059915594784

  • Carter, E. W., Asmus, J. M., & Moss, C. K. (2014). Peer support interventions to support inclusive education. In J. McLeskey, N. Waldron, F. Spooner, & B. Algozzone (Eds.), Handbook of research and practice for effective inclusive schools (pp. 377-394). New York, NY: Routledge.

  • Carter, E. W., Bottema-Beutel, K., & Brock, M. E. (2014). Social interactions and friendships. In M. Agran, F. Brown, C. Hughes, C. Quirk, & D. Ryndak (Eds.), Equity and full participation for individuals with severe disabilities: A vision for the future (pp. 197-216). Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing.

  • Carter, E. W., Huber, H. B., & Brock, M. E. (2014). Developing effective peer support arrangements for students with severe disabilities in inclusive classrooms. In J. Hart & K. Whalon (Eds.), Friendship 101: Developing social skills among children and youth with autism and developmental disabilities (pp. 101-112). Arlington, VA: Division on Autism and Developmental Disabilities, Council for Exceptional Children. 

  • Carter, E. W., Asmus, J., Moss, C. K., Cooney, M., Weir, K., Vincent, L., Born, T., Hochman, J., Bottema-Beutel, K., & Fesperman, E. (2013). Peer network strategies to foster social connections among adolescents with and without severe disabilities. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 46(2), 51-59. doi: 10.1177/004005991304600206

  • Carter, E. W., & Hughes, C. (2013). Teaching social skills and promoting supportive relationships. In P. Wehman (Ed.), Life beyond the classroom (5th ed.; pp. 249-268). Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing. 

  • Carter, E. W. (2011). Supporting peer relationships. In M. E. Snell & F. Brown (Eds.), Instruction of students with severe disabilities (pp. 431-460; 7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill. 

  • Giangreco, M. F., Carter, E. W., Doyle, M. B., & Suter, J. C. (2010). Supporting students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms: Personnel and peers. In R. Rose (Ed.), Confronting obstacles to inclusion: International responses to developing inclusive schools (pp. 247-263). London, UK: Routledge. 

  • Carter, E. W., Cushing, L. S., & Kennedy, C. H. (2009). Peer support strategies: Improving all students’ social lives and learning. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

  • Hughes, C., & Carter, E. W. (2008). Peer buddy programs for successful secondary school inclusion. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

  • Carter, E. W., & Hughes, C. (2007). Social interaction interventions: Promoting socially supportive environments and teaching new skills. In S. L. Odom, R. H. Horner, M. Snell, & J. Blacher (Eds.), Handbook on developmental disabilities (pp. 310-329). New York, NY: Guilford Press.