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Inclusive education

Supporting students with severe intellectual disability and autism to access the rich learning and social opportunities that exist within inclusive classrooms is critical--but challenging--work. This line of scholarship addresses pathways to inclusive schooling, with an accent on middle and high school.

research studies

  • Biggs, E. E., Gilson, C. B., & Carter, E. W. (in press). “Developing that balance”: Preparing and supporting special education teachers to work with paraprofessionals. Teacher Education and Special Education

  • Carter, E. W., Dykstra, J. S., & Hall, L. J. (in press). Exploring feasibility and fit: Peer-mediated interventions for high school students with autism spectrum disorder. School Psychology Review.  

  • Knight, V., Huber, H. B., Kuntz, E., Carter, E. W., & Juárez, P. (2019). Instructional practices, priorities, and preparedness for educating students with autism and intellectual disability. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 34, 3-14. doi: 10.1177/1088357618755694

  • Huber, H. B., Carter, E. W., Lopano, S. E., & Stankiewicz, K. C. (2018). Using structural analysis to inform peer support arrangements for high school students with severe disabilities. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 123, 119-139. doi:10.1352/1944-7558-123.2.119

  • Manikas, A., Carter, E. W., & Bumble, J. L. (2018). Inclusive community service among college students with and without intellectual disability: A pilot study. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 31, 225-238.

  • Biggs, E. E., Carter, E. W., & Gustafson, J. R. (2017). Efficacy of collaborative planning and peer support arrangements to increase peer interaction and AAC use in inclusive classrooms. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 122, 25-48. doi: 10.1352/1944-7558-122.1.25

  • Carter, E. W., Gustafson, J. R., Sreckovic, M. A., Steinbrenner, J. R. D., Pierce, N. P., Bord, A., Stabel, A., Rogers, S., Czerw, A., & Mullins, T. (2017). Efficacy of peer support interventions in general education classrooms for high school students with autism spectrum disorder. Remedial and Special Education, 38, 207-221. doi: 10.1177/0741932516672067

  • Leigers, K., Kleinert, H., & Carter, E. W. (2017). “I never truly thought about them having friends”: Equipping schools to foster peer relationships. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 36, 73-83. doi: doi.org/10.1177/8756870517707711

  • Asmus, J. A., Carter, E. W., Moss, C. K., Born, T. L., Vincent, L. B., Lloyd, B. P., & Chung, Y. (2016). Social outcomes and acceptability of two peer-mediated interventions for high school students with severe disabilities: A pilot study. Inclusion, 4, 194-214. doi: 10.1352/2326-6988-4.4.195

  • Brock, M. E., Biggs, E. E., Carter, E. W., Cattey, G., & Raley, K. (2016). Implementation and generalization of peer support arrangements for students with significant disabilities in inclusive classrooms. The Journal of Special Education, 49, 221-232. doi: 10.1177/0022466915594368

  • Brock, M. E., & Carter, E. W. (2016). Efficacy of teachers training paraprofessionals to implement peer support arrangements. Exceptional Children, 82, 354-371. doi: 10.1177/0014402915585564

  • Carter, E. W., Asmus, J., Moss, C. K., Amirault, K. A., Biggs, E. E., Bolt, D., Born, T. L., Brock, M. E., Cattey, G., Chen, R., Cooney, M., Hochman, J. T., Huber, H. B., Lequia, J., Lyons, G., Riesch, L., Shalev, R., Vincent, L. B., & Wier, K. (2016). Randomized evaluation of peer supports arrangements to support the inclusion of high school students with severe disabilities. Exceptional Children, 82, 209-233. doi: 10.1177/0014402915598780

  • Feldman, R., Carter, E. W., Asmus, J., & Brock, M. E. (2016). Presence, proximity, and peer interactions of adolescents with severe disabilities in general education classrooms. Exceptional Children, 82, 192-208. doi: 10.1177/0014402915585481

  • Shalev, R. A., Asmus, J. M., Carter, E. W., & Moss, C. K. (2016). Attitudes of high school students toward their classmates with severe disabilities: A pilot study. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 28, 523-538. doi: 10.1007/s10882-016-9489-x

  • Kucharczyk, S., Reutebuch, C. K., Carter, E. W., Hedges, S., Farah, E., Fan, H., & Gustafson, J. R. (2015). Addressing the needs of adolescents with autism spectrum disorders: Considerations and complexities for high school interventions. Exceptional Children, 81, 329-349. doi: 10.1177/0014402914563703

  • Bottema-Beutel, K., Lloyd, B., Carter, E. W., & Asmus, J. (2014). Generalizability and decision studies to inform observational and experimental research in classroom settings. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 119, 589-605. doi: 10.1352/1944-7558-119.6.589

  • Chung, Y., & Carter, E. W. (2013). Promoting peer interactions in inclusive classrooms for students with speech-generating devices. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 32, 94-109. doi: 10.2511/027494813807714492

  • Chung, Y., Carter, E. W., & Sisco, L. G. (2012). Social interaction of students with severe disabilities who use augmentative and alternative communication in inclusive classrooms. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 117, 349-367. doi: 10.1352/1944-7558-117.5.349

  • Carter, E. W., Moss, C. K., Hoffman, A., Chung, Y., & Sisco, L. G. (2011). Efficacy and social validity of peer support arrangements for adolescents with disabilities. Exceptional Children, 78, 107-125. doi: 10.1177/001440291107800107

  • Cushing, L. S., Carter, E. W., Clark, N. M., Wallis, T., & Kennedy, C. H. (2009). Evaluating inclusive educational practices for students with severe disabilities using the Program Quality Measurement Tool. The Journal of Special Education, 42, 194-208. doi: 10.1177/0022466907313352

  • Carter, E. W., Sisco, L. G., Brown, L., Brickham, D., & Al-Khabbaz, Z. A. (2008). Peer interactions and academic engagement of youth with developmental disabilities in inclusive middle and high school classrooms. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 113, 479-494. doi: 10.1352/2008.113:479-494

  • Carter, E. W., Sisco, L. G., Melekoglu, M., & Kurkowski, C. (2007). Peer supports as an alternative to individually assigned paraprofessionals in inclusive high school classrooms. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 32, 213-227. doi: 10.2511/rpsd.32.4.213

  • Carter, E. W., & Hughes, C. (2006). Including high school students with severe disabilities in general education classes: Perspectives of general and special educators, paraprofessionals, and administrators. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 31, 174-185. doi: 10.1177/154079690603100209

  • Carter, E. W., Cushing, L. S., Clark, N. M., & Kennedy, C. H. (2005). Effects of peer support interventions on students’ access to the general curriculum and social interactions. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 30, 15-25. doi: 10.2511/rpsd.30.1.15

  • Carter, E. W., Hughes, C., Guth, C., & Copeland, S. R. (2005). Factors influencing social interaction among high school students with intellectual disabilities and their general education peers. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 110, 366-377. doi: 10.1352/0895-8017(2005)110[366:FISIAH]2.0.CO;2

  • Copeland, S. R., Hughes, C., Carter, E. W., Guth, C., Presley, J., Williams, C. R., & Fowler, S. E. (2004). Increasing access to general education: Perspectives of participants in a high school peer support program. Remedial and Special Education, 26, 342-352. doi: 10.1177/07419325040250060201


reviews and other articles

  • Kuntz, E., & Carter, E. W. (2019). Review of interventions supporting secondary students with intellectual disability in general education classrooms. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 44, 103-121. doi: 10.1177/1540796919847483

  • Carter, E. W. (2018). Supporting the social lives of secondary students with severe disabilities: Critical elements for effective intervention. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 26, 52-61. doi:10.1177/1063426617739253

  • Carter, E. W. (2017). The promise and practice of peer support arrangements for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities. International Review of Research in Developmental Disabilities, 52, 141-174. doi: 10.1016/bs.irrdd.2017.04.001 

  • Huber, H. B., & Carter, E. W. (2016). Data-driven individualization in peer-mediated interventions for students with ASD: A literature review. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 3, 239-253. doi: 10.1007/s40489-016-0079-8

  • Carter, E. W., Swedeen, B., & Moss, C. K. (2012). Engaging youth with and without significant disabilities in inclusive service experiences. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 44(5), 46-54. 

  • Chung, Y., Carter, E. W., & Sisco, L. G. (2012). A systematic review of interventions to increase peer interactions for students with complex communication challenges. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 37, 271-287. doi: 10.2511/027494813805327304

  • Carter, E. W., & Kennedy, C. H. (2006). Promoting access to the general curriculum using peer support strategies. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 31, 284-292. doi: 10.1177/154079690603100402

  • Carter, E. W., & Hughes, C. (2005). Increasing social interaction among adolescents with intellectual disabilities and their general education peers: Effective interventions. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 30, 179-193. doi: 10.2511/rpsd.30.4.179

  • Cushing, L. S., Clark, N. M., Carter, E. W., & Kennedy, C. H. (2005). Access to the general education curriculum for students with severe disabilities: What it means and how to accomplish it. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 38(2), 6-13. doi: 10.1177/004005990503800201


chapters, books, and other publications

  • Carter, E. W., & Biggs, E. E. (in press). Evidence-based practices for adolescents and adults. In J. Ganz & R. Simpson (Eds.), Interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder who have minimal or no speech. Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing.

  • Huber, H. B., & Carter, E. W. (in press). Fostering peer relationships and shared learning for students with autism spectrum disorders. In R. Jordan, J. Roberts, & K. Hume (Eds.), Autism and education: An international handbook. London, UK: Sage.  

  • Carter, E. W., Biggs, E. E., & Blustein, C. L. (2016). Relationships matter: Addressing stigma among students with intellectual disability and their peers. In K. Scior and S. Werner (Eds.), Intellectual disability and stigma: Stepping out from the margins (pp. 149-164). London, UK: Palgrave McMillan.

  • Carter, E. W., Huber, H. H., & Biggs, E. E. (2015). The importance of peers as communication partners. In J. E. Downing, A. Hanreddy, & K. Peckham-Hardin (Eds.), Teaching communication skills to students with severe disabilities (3rd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing. 

  • Carter, E. W., Moss, C. K., Asmus, J., Fesperman, E., Cooney, M., Brock, M. E., Lyons, G., Huber, H. B., & Vincent, L. B. (2015). Promoting inclusion, social relationships, and learning through peer support arrangements. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 48(1), 9-18. doi: 10.1177/0040059915594784

  • Carter, E. W., Asmus, J. M., & Moss, C. K. (2014). Peer support interventions to support inclusive education. In J. McLeskey, N. Waldron, F. Spooner, & B. Algozzone (Eds.), Handbook of research and practice for effective inclusive schools (pp. 377-394). New York, NY: Routledge.

  • Carter, E. W., Huber, H. B., & Brock, M. E. (2014). Developing effective peer support arrangements for students with severe disabilities in inclusive classrooms. In J. Hart & K. Whalon (Eds.), Friendship 101: Developing social skills among children and youth with autism and developmental disabilities (pp. 101-112). Arlington, VA: Division on Autism and Developmental Disabilities, Council for Exceptional Children. 

  • Carter, E. W., Sisco, L. G., & Chung, Y. (2012). Peer-mediated support strategies. In P. A. Prelock & R. McCauley (Eds.), Treatment of autism spectrum disorders: Evidence-based intervention strategies for communication and social interactions (pp. 221-254). Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing. 

  • Carter, E. W., Swedeen, B., Moss, C. K., & Pesko, M. J. (2010). “What are you doing after school?” Promoting extracurricular involvement for transition-age youth with disabilities. Intervention in School and Clinic, 45, 275-283. doi: 10.1177/1053451209359077

  • Giangreco, M. F., Carter, E. W., Doyle, M. B., & Suter, J. C. (2010). Supporting students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms: Personnel and peers. In R. Rose (Ed.), Confronting obstacles to inclusion: International responses to developing inclusive schools (pp. 247-263). London, UK: Routledge. 

  • Carter, E. W., Cushing, L. S., & Kennedy, C. H. (2009). Peer support strategies: Improving all students’ social lives and learning. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

  • Carter, E. W., Cushing, L. S., & Kennedy, C. H. (2008). Promoting rigor, relevance, and relationships through peer support interventions. TASH Connections, 34(2) 20-23.

  • Carter, E. W., & Hughes, C. (2007). Social interaction interventions: Promoting socially supportive environments and teaching new skills. In S. L. Odom, R. H. Horner, M. Snell, & J. Blacher (Eds.), Handbook on developmental disabilities (pp. 310-329). New York, NY: Guilford Press. 

  • Cushing, L. S., Clark, N., Carter, E. W., & Kennedy, C. H. (2003). Peer supports and access to the general education curriculum. TASH Connections, 29(10), 8-11.