hiring.jpg

integrated employment

A good job is about much more than a paycheck. It brings a sense of accomplishment, self-worth, and independence; it gives young people a place to share their strengths and gifts in valued ways; it fosters new friendships and access to social supports; and it provides resources and connections that increase community involvement and contributions. This line of work focuses on connecting young people with intellectual and developmental disabilities to meaningful jobs in their community.

Research studies

  • Valentini, B., Carter, E. W., Bumble, J., & Hill, E. (in press). School-business partnerships and students with intellectual and developmental disabilities: Listening to employers. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation.

  • Bumble, J. L., Carter, E. W., McMillan, E., Manikas, A., & Bethune, L. (2018). Community conversations on integrated employment: Examining individualization, influential factors, and impact. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 28, 229-443. doi:10.1177/1044207317739401

  • Carter, E. W., Bendetson, S., & Guiden, C. (2018). Family perspectives on the appeals of and alternatives to sheltered employment for individuals with severe disabilities. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 43, 145-164. 

  • Gilson, C. B., & Carter, E. W. (2018). Video-based instruction to promote employment-related social behaviors for high school students with severe intellectual disability. Inclusion, 6, 175-193. 

  • Gilson, C. B., Carter, E. W., Bumble, J., & McMillan, E. (2018). Family perspectives on integrated employment for adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 3, 20-37. doi: 10.1177/1540796917751134  

  • Mamun, A. A., Carter, E. W., Fraker, T. M., & Timmons, L. (2018). Impact of early work experiences on subsequent paid employment for young adults with disabilities. Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals, 41, 212-222.

  • Bumble, J. L., Carter, E. W., McMillan, E., & Manikas, A. (2017). Using community conversations to expand employment opportunities for people with disabilities in rural and urban communities. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 47, 65-78. doi: 10.3233/JVR-170883

  • Blustein, C. L., & Carter, E. W. (2016). Promoting social interactions and job independence for college students with autism or intellectual disability: A pilot study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46, 3583-3596. doi:10.1007/s10803-016-2894-2

  • Carter, E. W., Blustein, C. L., Bumble, J. L., Harvey, S., Henderson, L., & McMillan, E. (2016). Engaging communities in identifying local strategies for expanding integrated employment during and after high school. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 121, 398-418. doi: 10.1352/1944-7558-121.5

  • Carter, E. W., Austin, D., & Trainor, A. A. (2012). Predictors of postschool employment outcomes for young adults with severe disabilities. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 23, 50-63. doi: 10.1177/1044207311414680

  • Trainor, A. A., Carter, E. W., Swedeen, B., & Pickett, K. (2012). Community conversations: An approach for expanding and connecting opportunities for employment for adolescents with disabilities. Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals, 35, 49-59. doi: 10.1177/0885728811419166

  • Carter, E. W., Austin, D., & Trainor, A. A. (2011). Factors associated with the early work experiences of adolescents with severe disabilities. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 49, 233-247. doi: 10.1352/1934-9556-49.4.233

  • Carter, E. W., Trainor, A. A., Ditchman, N., & Owens, L. A. (2011). A pilot study connecting youth with emotional and behavioral difficulties to summer work experiences. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 34, 95-106. doi: 10.1177/0885728810395745

  • Carter, E. W., Trainor, A. A., Ditchman, N., Swedeen, B., & Owens, L. (2011). Community-based work experiences of adolescents with high-incidence disabilities. The Journal of Special Education, 45, 89-103. doi: 10.1177/0022466909353204

  • Trainor, A. A., Carter, E. W., Swedeen, B., Owens, L., Cole, O., & Smith, S. A. (2011). Perspectives of adolescents with disabilities on summer employment and community experiences. The Journal of Special Education, 45, 157-170. doi: 10.1177/0022466909359424

  • Carter, E. W., Ditchman, N., Sun, Y., Trainor, A. A., Swedeen, B., & Owens, L. (2010). Summer employment and community experiences of transition-age youth with severe disabilities. Exceptional Children, 76, 194-212. doi: 10.1177/001440291007600204

  • Carter, E. W., Trainor, A. A., Cakiroglu, O., Swedeen, B., & Owens, L. (2010). Availability of and access to career development activities for transition-age youth with disabilities. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 33, 13-24. doi: 10.1177/0885728809344332

  • Carter, E. W., Trainor, A. A., Cakiroglu, O., Cole, O., Swedeen, B., Ditchman, N., & Owens, L. (2009). Exploring school-business partnerships to expand career development and early work experiences for youth with disabilities. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 32, 145-159. doi: 10.1177/0885728809344590

  • Carter, E. W., Trainor, A. A., Ditchman, N., Swedeen, B., & Owens, L. (2009). Evaluation of a multi-component intervention package to increase summer work experiences for transition-age youth with severe disabilities. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 34, 1-12. doi: 10.2511/rpsd.34.2.1

  • Trainor, A. A., Carter, E. W., Owens, L., & Swedeen, B. (2008). Special educators’ perceptions of summer employment and community participation opportunities for youth with disabilities. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 31, 144-153. doi: 10.1177/0885728808323717

  • Hughes, C., Wehby, J. H., Carter, E. W., Plank, D. R., Wilson, L. R., Johnson, S. M., & Barton-Arwood, S. M. (2004). Summer activities of youth with high incidence disabilities from high poverty backgrounds. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 27, 27-42. doi: 10.1177/088572880402700103

  • Carter, E. W., & Wehby, J. H. (2003). Job performance of transition-age youth with emotional and behavioral disorders. Exceptional Children, 69, 449-465. doi: 10.1177/001440290306900404


reviews and other articles

  • Lee, G. K., Chun, J., Hama, H., & Carter, E. W. (2018). Review of transition and vocational interventions for youths and adults with autism spectrum disorders. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 5, 268-284.

  • Carter, E. W., & Bumble, J. L. (2018). The promise and possibilities of community conversations: Expanding employment opportunities for people with disabilities. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 28, 195-202. doi: 10.1177/1044207317739408

  • Carter, E. W., McMillan, E., Willis, W., & TennesseeWorks Partnership. (2017). The TennesseeWorks Partnership: Elevating employment outcomes for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 47, 365-378. doi:10.3233/JVR-170909. 

  • Gilson, C. B., Carter, E. W., & Biggs, E. E. (2017). Systematic review of instructional methods to teach employment skills to secondary students with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 42, 89-107. doi: 10.1177/1540796917698831

  • Nord, D., Timmons, J., Carter, E. W., & Gaventa, W. (2014). Building community capacity to advance employment: Putting faith to work. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 40, 161-164. doi: 10.3233/JVR-140669

  • Test, D. W., Smith, L., & Carter, E. W. (2014). Equipping youth with autism spectrum disorders for adulthood: Promoting rigor, relevance, and relationships. Remedial and Special Education, 35, 80-90. doi: 10.1177/0741932513514857

  • Lee, G. K., & Carter, E. W. (2012). Preparing transition-age students with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders for meaningful work. Psychology in the Schools, 49, 988-1000. doi: 10.1002/pits.21651

  • Carter, E. W., & Lunsford, L. B. (2005). Meaningful work: Preparing transition-age youth with emotional and behavioral disorders for employment. Preventing School Failure, 49(2), 63-69. doi: 10.3200/PSFL.49.2.63-69


chapters and practice articles

  • Carter, E. W., Owens, L., Swedeen, B., Trainor, A. A., Thompson, C., Ditchman, N., & Cole, O. (2009). Conversations that matter: Expanding employment opportunities for youth with significant disabilities through community conversations. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 41(6), 38-46. doi: 10.1177/004005990904100603

  • Carter, E. W., Swedeen, B., & Trainor, A. A. (2009). The other three months: Connecting transition-age youth with disabilities to meaningful summer experiences. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 41(6), 18-26. doi: 10.1177/004005990904100603

  • Carter, E. W., Endress, T., Gustafson, J., Shouse, J., Taylor, C., Utley, A., Amado, A., Nord, D., Timmons, J., Kleinert, H., Tyree, M., Canevaro, A., Seay, P., Gaventa, W., & Allen, W. (2016). Putting faith to work: A guide for congregations and communities on connecting job seekers with disabilities to meaningful work. Nashville, TN: Collaborative on Faith and Disability. 

  • Carter, E. W., Blustein, C., L., Rowan, J. L., & Harvey, S. (2014). Changing the conversation: Engaging local communities in new discussions about competitive employment. TASH Connections, 40(1), 8-14.  

  • Carter, E. W., & McMillan, E. (2014). Pathways to meaningful employment for youth and young adults with significant disabilities. TASH Connections, 40(1), 6-7.    

  • Gaventa, W., Allen, W., Kleinert, H., & Carter, E. W. (2014). Putting faith to work: The call and opportunity for faith communities to transform the lives of people with disabilities and their communities. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt Kennedy Center.

  • Harvey, S., & Carter, E. W. (2014). Uncovering new pathways to employment through community conversations. Breaking Ground, 73, 8-10.

  • Carter, E. W. (2012). Supporting meaningful work in Tennessee. Breaking Ground, 65, 19.